Fit for Freedom, Not for Friendship
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There is a common misconception that, because of their belief in equality, most Quakers assisted fugitive slaves and involved themselves in civil rights activism. While there were Friends committed to ending enslavement and post-enslavement injustices, this study of Quaker history reveals that racism has been as insidious, complex, and pervasive among Friends as it has been generally among people of European descent. The book documents the spiritual and practical impacts of discrimination in the Religious Society of Friends in the expectation that understanding the truth of our past is vital to achieving a diverse, inclusive community in the future.
Illustrations, Preface , Author’s Statements, Acknowledgements
Part One : Enslavement, Emancipation, and Movement West 1680-1900 - 1
Chapter One – Ending Enslavement among Friends: 1688-1787 - 3
Chapter Two – Addressing North American Enslavement: 1800-1860 - 45
Chapter Three – Quakers and Immediate Emancipation - 69
Chapter Four – Friends and Freed People: 1700-1860 - 109
Chapter Five – The Civil War and its Failed Reconstruction - 141
Chapter Six – African American Membership in the Religious Society of Friends - 179
Part Two: Twentieth-Century Challenges and Beyond - 209
Chapter Seven – Working for Desegregation - 211
Chapter Eight – Working for Economic Justice - 261
Chapter Nine – Violence and Nonviolence - 291
Chapter Ten – Integration in Quaker Schools - 319
Chapter Eleven – Towards Integration in the Society of Friends - 361
Epilogue – Toward an Inclusive Community - 389
Notes on Resources , Notes, Glossary, Selected Bibliography, Contributing Historians, Index
Winston Churchill was once told, regarding another politician, that "Mr. X is a very modest man." "Yes,"Churchill replied, "but then, Mr. X has much to be modest about."
Several times during eight years in North Carolina, I have been introduced as a Quaker to black persons of substance, mostly ministers.
To a person, when they heard "Quaker," their faces have brightened and they said something like, "Oh, the Quakers! They’re wonderful. They were with us when it really counted."
But such praise evokes in me a double reaction. One is the classic panic fear-of-discovery response:
Yes but, goes the voice in my head, would you still feel that way if you knew how much support for segregation there was, even among anti-slavery Friends? And how long segregation lasted in Quaker schools here and elsewhere? And how many Quakers even joined the Klan back in the day? - - -
See the rest of his review here: http://quest.quaker.org/issue16-fit-for-freedom01.htm